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Executive Functions, Intelligence(s), The Learning Process: Effects of the ADHD spectrum, acquired brain injuries, epilepsy and seizures, and many learning disabilities have on these essential functions of the human mind

Main Areas of Interest on Spectrum of Minds

  • 1. Cognitive Diversity
  • 2. Executive Functions
  • 3. Intelligence(s)
  • 4. Learning
  • 5. The ADHD Spectrum & Executive Function
  • 6. Acquired Brain Injuries
  • 7. Epilepsy and Seizures 
  • 8. Various Learning Disabilities 
  • 9. Learning & Coping Strategies

and how all affect learning and functioning

Thank You for Learning with Us!

Beth D. Johnson, MEd+ 
Head Writer, Researcher, 
Spectrum of Minds™

Brain Injury - What is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)?


Doctors use the Glasgow Coma Scale to determine the severity of a head injury. This video explains this rating scale in detail and what it means to patients.




Executive DYSFunctions + The ADHD Spectrum Equals Cause and Effect!

ADHD is a Problem Based on a Mixture of One's Executive DYSfunctions! It is Not Based on Low Intelligence, Disease, or Brain Damage! 

This has been proven by thousands of research and  brain imaging studies (showing the areas of the brain that are working TOO hard to accomplish tasks because of various reasons that show where the problems in ADHD/ADD are found within the working brain.

Example of a Whole Brain Image Scan

As mentioned before many times, EVERYONE has trouble with their executive functions from time to time, but those along the ADHD spectrum have trouble with their own specific mixture of executive DYSfunctions almost ALL the time!!! This includes during school ( for subjects and skills that they are not interested in) and the time when they are NOT at school (again, for those things for which they have no interest).

ADHD = Executive DYSfunctions

Executive dysfunctioning is THE cause or problem creating the neurobiological disorder of ADHD, whether it is primarily hyperactive or primarily inattentive.


This chart from Thomas Brown, Phd.  summarizes the executive functions that are impaired in ADHD for your reference. (Also remember that ADHD is an umbrella term for any of the subtypes.)
These executive dysfunctions that make up the problems with ADHD lead to the negative results that it causes, while they may often look like many other things to the uninformed observer!

Executive Impairments in ADHD

Different leaders in the field of attention deficit disorder, such as Dr. Russell Barkley and Dr. Thomas Brown, disagree on the exact executive functions involved in this disorder. However, they do agree that EF's are the main culprit involved in dysfunction. Regardless of their viewpoints, learning from what they know puts us all at a clear advantage when helping children and adults. In this short video, Russell Barkley discusses the executive functions involved in ADHD based on the research he follows.